Tags: Title For College EssayScan My Essay Viper Plagiarism ScannerThesis Statement About RacismFsot Essay RescoreCritical Thinking HomeschoolBest Argumentative Essay SamplePrinceton Review College Essay Book
Two major types of unipolar disorders described by the (APA, 2013) are major depressive disorder and persistent depressive disorder (PDD; dysthymia).
According to the fifth edition of the These symptoms cannot be caused by physiological effects of a substance or a general medical condition (e.g., hypothyroidism).
The core criterion for a manic or hypomanic episode is a distinct period of abnormally and persistently euphoric, expansive, or irritable mood and persistently increased goal-directed activity or energy.
Although the onset of MDD can occur at any time throughout the lifespan, the average age of onset is mid-20s, with the age of onset decreasing with people born more recently (APA, 2000).
Prevalence of MDD among older adults is much lower than it is for younger cohorts (Kessler, Birnbaum, Bromet, Hwang, Sampson, & Shahly, 2010). Recovery begins within three months for 40% of people with MDD and within 12 months for 80% (APA, 2013).
In this module, we describe major mood disorders, including their symptom presentations, general prevalence rates, and how and why the rates of these disorders tend to vary by age, gender, and race.
In addition, biological and environmental risk factors that have been implicated in the development and course of mood disorders, such as heritability and stressful life events, are reviewed.To meet criteria for PDD, a person cannot be without symptoms for more than two months at a time. If someone meets criteria for an MDE during a PDD episode, the person will receive diagnoses of PDD and MDD. Bipolar I Disorder (BD I), which was previously known as manic-depression, is characterized by a single (or recurrent) manic episode.A depressive episode is not necessary but commonly present for the diagnosis of BD I.It may also involve a great deal of shame for the mother, making her reluctant to divulge her experience to others, including her doctors and family.Feelings of shame are not unique to perinatal depression.An unfortunate social stigma regarding this form of depression compounds the problem for the women who suffer its effects.[Image: CC0 Public Domain]The actress Brooke Shields published a memoir titled Down Came the Rain: My Journey through Postpartum Depression in which she described her struggles with depression following the birth of her daughter.Stigma applies to other types of depressive and bipolar disorders and contributes to people not always receiving the necessary support and treatment for these disorders.In fact, the World Health Organization ranks both major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD) among the top 10 leading causes of disability worldwide. It is estimated that 25%–50% of people diagnosed with BD will attempt suicide at least once in their lifetimes (Goodwin & Jamison, 2007).Finally, we provide an overview of treatments for mood disorders, covering treatments with demonstrated effectiveness, as well as new treatment options showing promise.Perinatal depression following child birth afflicts about 5% of all mothers.