Essays Of Schopenhauer Gutenberg Essays About Keeping Secrets
i, § 59), namely that between the assumed souls or minds and the corporeal world, as between two wholly heterogeneous kinds of substances, absolutely no action and connection can take place, for which reason he denied physical influence.Incidentally, the karmonia praestabil Ua might perhaps be best rendered comprehensible by a comparison with the stage.Here very often the influxus pkysicus 5 only apparently exists, since cause and effect are connected merely by means of a pre-established harmony of the stage manager, for example, when the one shoots and the other falls a tempo . The formal existence of ideas has God as its cause, in so fax as he is considered as a thinking being, and not in so far as he is evolved by another attribute.In the seventeenth century, on the contrary, philosophy again forsook that path and accordingly arrived at Locke, on the one hand, for whom Bacon and Hobbes had paved the way, and at Christian Wolff, on the other, through Leibniz* These two were then dominant in the eighteenth century, especially in Germany, although ultimately only in so far as they had been initiated into syncretistic eclecticism.Malebranche’s profound ideas, however, first gave rise to Leibniz’s system of harmonia praestabilita^ and the widespread fame and high repute of this in his day furnish a proof of the fact that in the world the absurd most easily succeeds* Although I cannot boast of having a clear notion of Leibniz's monads, which are at the same time mathematical points, material atoms, and souls, yet it seems to me beyond doubt that such an assumption once settled could help to save us from all further hypotheses for explaining the connection between the ideal and the real, and to dispose of the question by the fact that both are already fully identified in the monads.He clothed this insight in the form of a doubt concerning the existence of the external world; but by his inadequate solution of such doubt* namely that God Almighty would surely not deceive us, he has shown how profound the problem is and how difficult it is to solve.Mean¬ while through him this scruple had come into philosophy and was bound to continue to have a disturbing effect until it was thoroughly disposed of.[The Two Fundamental Problems of Ethics treated in two academical prize-essays by Dr. Frankfurt am Main, 1841, p* xxiv; 2nd edn., Leipzig, i860, pp, xxlvf.] Since the days of Descartes his 1 f For there is for this universe no other place than the mind*’] 1 [’ But we should not accept time outside the mind; and also we should not accept the eternity of the Beyond outside Being (he.the world of Ideas)/] 3 [‘This life produces time, which also means that time arose simultaneously with this universe; for the mind has produced it simultaneously with this uni¬ verse/] 4 [T doubt, that is to say, I think, consequently I am/] SKETCH OF A HISTORY OF IDEAL AND REAL 5 proposition has been repeated innumerable times from a mere feeling of its importance and without a clear understanding of its real meaning and purport* (See Meditationes , Med, 11, p* 15,) And so it was he who discovered the gulf between the subjective or ideal and the objective or real.Therefore by abolishing the difference between substantia cogitans and substantia extmsa , Spinoza has still not solved this problem, but has at most again rendered physical influence admissible.This, however, does not suffice to solve the difficulty, for the law of causality is demonstrably of subjective origin.