They should also be genetically and epigenetically normal (Skottman et al., 2006).HES cells are derived from the inner cell mass (ICM) of preimplantation embryos.
Immunosurgery involves removing the zona pellucida with an enzyme such as pronase or Acidic Tyrode’s solution (Klimanskaya and Mc Mahon, 2006).
Following this, the outer trophoblast layer is selectively removed using rabbit anti-human antibodies (Vugler et al., 2007).
Applying specific growth factors to h ES cells allows the generation of cardiomyocytes for use in cell replacement therapies (Winkler et al., 2004).
Due to growing transplant lists there is an increased need to develop new methods to treat people with heart failure and cardiomyopathies (Salmons, 1999).
After a number of days the ICM will be ready to subcultivate.
Firstly the viable, undifferentiated cells are separated from those that have differentiated, these segments are identified via the use of a stereomicroscope.Tissue engineering requires cells that are easily isolated, sufficient in number, and have a defined and controlled phenotype; h ES cells are one of the most promising candidates (Cohen et al., 2006).It is hoped that embryonic derived cardiomyocytes will be effective in treating disorders such a myocardial infarction.Many different avenues of research employ the use of h ES cells.These include tissue-engineering, cardiology, treating spinal cord injury, testing drug toxicity, among others.The ICM is then washed thoroughly and propagated on the culture medium DMEM (Dulbeco’s modified Eagle’s medium) with a mouse embryonic fibroblast feeder layer (Laslett et al., 2003).The use of alternative methods to culture h ES cells, such as feeder-free culture to prevent infection, has proved unsuccessful, producing sub-optimal cells (Skottman et al., 2006).The undifferentiated cells are then plated onto new culture dishes.Successful propagation of the ICM is associated with the appearance of cells with undifferentiated h ES cell morphology (Sartipy et al., 2007).The most researched stem cell is the adult stem cell, but these cells, except in the treatment of leukaemia, do not often lead to true transdifferentation when used clinically.Much research is still to needed to prove their efficacy in treating other diseases, including heart defects for example.