A generation ago, as the culture wars raged, Toni Morrison often stood at the front lines, demanding the desegregation of the American literary canon.In her Tanner Lectures in 1988, and later in her book, she argued against a monochromatic literary canon that had seemed forever to be naturally and inevitably all-white but was, in fact, “studiously” so.Most commonly, pronouns convey the boundaries between “we” and “them” through the use of first- and third-person plurals. Those who are “them” can be described in the negative language of disgust: black as ugly, black as polluting.
A generation ago, as the culture wars raged, Toni Morrison often stood at the front lines, demanding the desegregation of the American literary canon.In her Tanner Lectures in 1988, and later in her book, she argued against a monochromatic literary canon that had seemed forever to be naturally and inevitably all-white but was, in fact, “studiously” so.Most commonly, pronouns convey the boundaries between “we” and “them” through the use of first- and third-person plurals. Those who are “them” can be described in the negative language of disgust: black as ugly, black as polluting.Tags: How Do U Write A EssayBusiness Plan For BankTerm Papers Drug AbuseAssignment Problem Hungarian Method MaximizationTitling Essays MlaDivorce Case StudiesSocial Psychology Thesis PaperEuthanasia Speeches Persuasive
Morrison’s lectures and book are a historic achievement, as they confirm the impact of her intellectual tradition in American thought—a tradition that links her to James Baldwin, and in a younger generation Ta-Nehisi Coates, in the critique of whiteness.
Morrison’s earliest witnesses of Othering are two women who had been enslaved, Mary Prince and Harriet Jacobs, both of whom later recorded their physical and mental torture at the hands of their owners.
In her 1831 memoir, Prince described her owner’s reinforcement of hierarchy through beating; her master “would stand by and give orders for a slave to be cruelly whipped…walking about and taking snuff with the greatest composure.” Thirty years later, Jacobs wrote of how slavery made “the white fathers cruel and sensual; the sons violent and licentious.” Within slavery, the process of Othering is physical, and is meant to work in only one direction, from the slaver to the slave. ”—focusing not on the victimized enslaved, but on the victimizing owners.
“The definition of the inhuman describes overwhelmingly the punisher..pleasure of the one with the lash.” Rendering the slave “a foreign species,” Morrison concludes, “appears to be a desperate attempt to confirm one’s own self as normal.” Humanity links the enslaved and the enslaver, no matter how viciously owners seek to deny the connection.
Torture, the crucial ingredient of slave ownership, dehumanizes not the slave but the owner. Even when physical force is used, the people doing the Othering can also bolster their self-definition through words.
“It’s as though they are shouting, ‘I am not a beast! Thomas Thistlewood, an English planter and rapist who moved to Jamaica in 1750, documented his assaults on the women he owned, categorizing those that took place on the ground, in the fields, and in large and small rooms, whenever, wherever he wished. Harriet Beecher Stowe’s noveltakes a very different tone, defining the Other by making a romance of slave life.But race should not decide how a character acts or thinks or speaks or looks.Morrison articulates her determination “to de-fang cheap racism, annihilate and discredit the routine, easy, available color fetish, which is reminiscent of slavery itself.” But it is far from easy.Opening up would serve the interests of American mental as well as intellectual health, since the white racial ideology that purged literature of blackness was, Morrison said, “savage.” She called the very concept of whiteness “an inhuman idea.”, Morrison extends and sharpens these themes as she traces through American literature patterns of thought and behavior that subtly code who belongs and who doesn’t, who is accepted in and who is cast out as “Other.” She has previously written of how modernist novelists like William Faulkner (who saw race) and Ernest Hemingway (who did not) respected the codes of Jim Crow by dehumanizing black figures or ignoring the connotations of blackness in their nonblack figures.But the process of exiling some people from humanity, she observes here, also ranges beyond American habits of race: One need only look at the treatment of millions now in flight from war and economic desperation.Surely thanks to the more multicultural, multiracial canon that Morrison helped foster, no respectable version of American literature today omits writers of color.Morrison herself has received nearly all the honors a novelist can win: the Pulitzer Prize for fiction, the Nobel Prize in Literature, the Presidential Medal of Freedom, and the French Legion of Honor, among many more.Theis the result of her lectures in the prestigious Charles Eliot Norton series at Harvard University, where she is only the fourth woman and the second black lecturer in the 92-year history of the series.Within the Norton Lectures’ tradition of wisdom, and among its tellers, Morrison represents a novelty by virtue of her gender, her race, and her American subject matter.She accused scholars of “lobotomizing” literary history and criticism in order to free them of black presence.Broadening our conception of American literature beyond the cast of lily-white men would not simply benefit nonwhite readers.