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The review of the literature provides the background and context for the research problem.It should establish the need for the research and indicate that the writer is knowledgeable about the area (Wiersma, 1995, p. Avoid statements that imply that little has been done in the area or that what has been done is too extensive to permit easy summary.
It is important in a proposal that the problem stand outthat the reader can easily recognize it.
Sometimes, obscure and poorly formulated problems are masked in an extended discussion.
It is a key element that associations such as AERA and APA look for in proposals.
It is essential in all quantitative research and much qualitative research.
For example, There is no relationship between the number of hours nontraditional-aged college women use the student union and their persistence at the college after their freshman year.
Or, There is no difference between the mean grade point averages achieved by students in the upper and lower quartiles of the distribution of the Self-regulated Inventory.Effective problem statements answer the question Why does this research need to be conducted.If a researcher is unable to answer this question clearly and succinctly, and without resorting to hyperspeaking (i.e., focusing on problems of macro or global proportions that certainly will not be informed or alleviated by the study), then the statement of the problem will come off as ambiguous and diffuse.For example, There is no relationship between support services and academic persistence of nontraditional-aged college women.Or, There is no difference in school achievement for high and low self-regulated students.a no difference form in terms of the operation required to test the hypothesis.Be judicious in your choice of exemplarsthe literature selected should be pertinent and relevant (APA, 2001). They are most often used in qualitative inquiry, although their use in quantitative inquiry is becoming more prominent.Select and reference only the more appropriate citations. Committees may want a section outlining your search strategythe procedures you used and sources you investigated (e.g., databases, journals, test banks, experts in the field) to compile your literature review. are relevant to normative or census type research (How many of them are there? Hypotheses are relevant to theoretical research and are typically used only in quantitative inquiry.The operational null is generally the preferred form of hypothesis-writing.a form that states the hypothesis you will accept if the null hypothesis is rejected, stated in terms of theoretical constructs.In other words, this is usually what you hope the results will show.The practice of using hypotheses was derived from using the scientific method in social science inquiry.They have philosophical advantages in statistical testing, as researchers should be and tend to be conservative and cautious in their statements of conclusions (Armstrong, 1974).a no difference form in terms of theoretical constructs.