Optimism also predicted less disruption of normal life, distress, and fatigue in one study of women who were undergoing painful treatment for breast cancer (Carver, Lehman, & Antoni, 2003).
Optimism also predicted less disruption of normal life, distress, and fatigue in one study of women who were undergoing painful treatment for breast cancer (Carver, Lehman, & Antoni, 2003).Tags: O J Simpson Case EssaySummary Book ReportMoral Ethical Dilemmas EssaysEssayage Virtuel De Lunette De SoleilBlindfold Walk EssayArgumentative Essay On English As Official Language
Ironson and colleagues (2005) found, in a large sample, that optimism and positive HIV immune response were linearly related: people highest in optimism had the best suppression of viral load and a greater number of helper T cells, both important parts of the progression of HIV.
Furthermore, another study found that optimistic men who were HIV-positive had lower mortality over a longitudinal study (Blomkvist et al., 1994).
Specifically, optimistic people believe that negative events are temporary, limited in scope (instead of pervading every aspect of a person’s life), and manageable.
Of course, optimism, like other psychological states and characteristics, exists on a continuum.
These studies have found that optimistic people experience less distress when faced with potentially life-threatening cancer diagnoses.
For example, Schou and colleagues (2005) found that a superior “fighting spirit” found in optimists predicted substantially better quality of life one year after breast cancer surgery.This section will review what is known about the benefits of optimism and evidence suggesting optimism is a learnable skill. Explanatory styles reflect three attributions that a person forms about a recent event.Imagine two students who receive the same poor grade on an exam. Did it happen because of me (internal) or something or someone else (external)?Optimism also plays a role in the recovery from illness and disease.Multiple studies have investigated the role of optimism in people undergoing treatment for cancer (e.g., Carver et al., 1993; Schou, Ekeberg, & Ruland, 2005).With a large longitudinal sample collected in the mid-1960s, the researchers categorized medical patients as optimistic, mixed, or pessimistic.Optimism was operationalized using parts of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory.The researchers found that for every 10 point increase in a person’s score on their optimism scale, the risk of early death decreased by 19%.Considering that, for a middle-aged person of average health, the difference between sudden death risk factors for smokers and non-smokers is 5-10%, the protective effect of optimism found in this study is massive.Optimistic mothers even deliver healthier, heavier babies (Lobel, De Vincent, Kaminer, & Meyer, 2000)!Optimism seems to have a tremendous number of benefits; consider several detailed below.