Its definition is contested, but the competing definitions can be understood as differing conceptions of the same basic concept: careful thinking directed to a goal.Conceptions differ with respect to the scope of such thinking, the type of goal, the criteria and norms for thinking carefully, and the thinking components on which they focus.
Glaser (1941) showed experimentally that it was possible to improve the critical thinking of high school students.
Bloom’s influential taxonomy of cognitive educational objectives (Bloom et al. Ennis (1962) proposed 12 aspects of critical thinking as a basis for research on the teaching and evaluation of critical thinking ability.
His lengthy quotations of Francis Bacon, John Locke, and John Stuart Mill indicate that he was not the first person to propose development of a scientific attitude of mind as an educational goal.
In the 1930s, many of the schools that participated in the Eight-Year Study of the Progressive Education Association (Aikin 1942) adopted critical thinking as an educational goal, for whose achievement the study’s Evaluation Staff developed tests (Smith, Tyler, & Evaluation Staff 1942).
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Critical thinking is a widely accepted educational goal.Its adoption as an educational goal has been recommended on the basis of respect for students’ autonomy and preparing students for success in life and for democratic citizenship.“Critical thinkers” have the dispositions and abilities that lead them to think critically when appropriate.*NEW* Download CTLL is an open access journal, meaning that all articles will be made available on the internet immediately upon publication.CTLL is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC 4.0) and is free of article processing charges and submission charges.Researchers have developed standardized tests of critical thinking abilities and dispositions; for details, see the Supplement on Assessment.Educational jurisdictions around the world now include critical thinking in guidelines for curriculum and assessment.For more information regarding the Creative Commons License, please click .CTLL is archived in the National Diet Library with an ISSN:2432-4949.Since 2014, the CTLL has been publishing rigorous academic articles annually with a double-blind peer review system for both members and non-members of the Japan Association for Language Teaching, Critical Thinking Special Interest Group.You can download CTLL and other resources to support the articles found inside.