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For the analysis of the results, we distinguish between two types of variables according to the following possibilities of pedagogical intervention: Structural (contextual family variables and individual parental processes), and dynamic (relational family processes).Our review found evidence that there is more controversy around structural variables than around dynamic variables.Görzig and Machackova (2015) also conducted a thorough analysis of the prevalence of the phenomenon from a socio-ecological perspective, using the data from the EU Kids Online research.
This research shows the clear impact that family variables play in bullying, especially the contextual family variables and relational family variables and, to a lesser extent, the individual parental variables.
More specifically, the variables with greater consistency and stability as predictors of the phenomenon are, on the one hand, domestic violence and parental mental health (contextual family variables), and on the other hand, child abuse, child neglect, and maladaptive parenting (relational family processes). (2014) conducted an exhaustive meta-analysis research on cyberbullying among young people, including a critical review.
The present review investigates the role played by family variables on cyberbullying perpetration and victimization.
A systematic literature review was conducted in five databases (Science Direct, Scopus, Pub Med, ERIC, and Web of Science) from October 2016 to October 2018.
Specifically, Science Direct found publications from 2007 to 2019, and the 2016–2018 period represents 52%.
In SCOPUS, we found such publications since 2010, with the 2016–2018 period corresponding to 51%.Campfield (2006) even noted the imbalance of power traditionally associated with bullying has no role in cyberbullying.This change in the bully/victim dynamic has led some researchers to analyze the relationship between traditional bullying methods and the more modern cyberbullying.The authors found that parental monitoring, as an integral part of a warm and supportive relationship, seems to be more closely related to a decreased involvement of children in cyberbullying, both as perpetrators and as victims.Definitively, these studies demonstrated the decisive role that family variables play in the prevention of this phenomenon (Elsaesser et al. The main objective of our study is to carry out a systematic review of the literature, focusing on the role played by family variables in cyberbullying, both in terms of perpetration and victimization.The most consistent variables are family communication and the quality of the family relationship.However, there is a perceived need for clarifying the influence that different structural variables, parental educational styles, and parental mediation exert on the prevention and consolidation of cyberbullying perpetration and cybervictimization.Campfield (2006) also investigated this relationship, reporting that of the 119 students who were traditional bullies, 61% were harassing victims through electronic means as well.Similar to the bully/cyberbully connection, the anonymity of cyberbullying leads one to believe that traditional victims may seek revenge by becoming bullies in the cyber world.Their work led to the conclusion that the children involved in cyberbullying situations had weaker emotional links with their parents, a higher level of parental discipline, and a lower frequency of parental monitoring.An inverse relationship between parental support and involvement as perpetration was also found, as well as between parental control and victimization.