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Erect posture produces a constant downward and forward thrust on the lumbar vertebrae.
Adam E Perrin, MD, FAAFP, CAQSM Assistant Clinical Professor, Department of Family Medicine, University of Connecticut School of Medicine; Assistant Clinical Professor, Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine; Faculty, University of Connecticut Family Medicine Residency Program, Family Medicine Center at Asylum Hill; Medical Director, NCQA-accredited Center for Chronic Care Management, Middlesex Hospital Adam E Perrin, MD, FAAFP, CAQSM is a member of the following medical societies: Alpha Omega Alpha, American Academy of Family Physicians, American College of Medical Quality, American Medical Society for Sports Medicine, Connecticut State Medical Society, Society of Teachers of Family Medicine Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.
Brian J Shiple, DO Chief, Director of Primary Care Sport, Clinical Assistant Professor, Department of Family Medicine, Division of Sports Medicine, Crozer-Keystone Health Systems Brian J Shiple, DO is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Family Physicians, American Association for Physician Leadership, American College of Sports Medicine, American Medical Society for Sports Medicine, American Osteopathic Association Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.
The clinical status of the patients was assessed by the modified Japanese orthopedic association scale (m JOAS).
The mean difference between the static and dynamic canal diameters was statistically significant at C3-4 (p How to cite this URL: Vyas K H, Banerji D, Behari S, Jain S, Jain V K, Chhabra D K. Neurol India [serial online] 2004 [cited 2019 Sep 7];5-9. 2004/52/2/215/11047The commonly involved levels in the order of frequency in cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) are C5-6, C6-7, and C4-5.,,,,,, The C3-4 level is infrequently involved in CSM.
However, Mihara et al have reported a five times more involvement of the C3-4 level in patients older than 65 years as compared to their younger counterparts., This study assesses the radiological factors contributing to the development of CSM at the C3-4 level; the correlation between the clinical status and the radiological compression; the changes in the cervical curvature after surgery; and, the surgical outcome.
In this prospective study carried out between February 1999 and June 2002, a total of 137 patients of cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) were operated by the anterior approach.
Both spondylolysis and spondylolisthesis are often asymptomatic, and the degree of spondylolisthesis does not necessarily correlate with the incidence or severity of symptoms, even when a patient is experiencing back pain.
However, these 2 entities have been reported to be the most common underlying causes of persistent low back pain among children and adolescents, despite the fact that most cases are asymptomatic.
Francisco Talavera, Pharm D, Ph D Adjunct Assistant Professor, University of Nebraska Medical Center College of Pharmacy; Editor-in-Chief, Medscape Drug Reference Disclosure: Received salary from Medscape for employment. Craig C Young, MD Professor, Departments of Orthopedic Surgery and Community and Family Medicine, Medical Director of Sports Medicine, Medical College of Wisconsin Craig C Young, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Family Physicians, American College of Sports Medicine, American Medical Society for Sports Medicine, Phi Beta Kappa Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.
Andrew D Perron, MD Residency Director, Department of Emergency Medicine, Maine Medical Center Andrew D Perron, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American College of Emergency Physicians, American College of Sports Medicine, Society for Academic Emergency Medicine Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.