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Debt Bondage: A young woman from Russia has amassed grave credit card debt and is desperate to pay it off.A man who identifies himself as an employment agent offers her a job in the United States as a domestic employee.She is then told that she must work as a housekeeper to pay off the cost of her travel or her family will be killed.
Laczko (Eds.), Human trafficking: New directions for research (pp.73-94). American Psychological Association Task Force on Trafficking of Women and Girls. Report of the task force on trafficking of women and girls. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Human trafficking cases: how and why to use an expert witness.
Austin: Center for Social Work Research School of Social Work, Institute on Domestic Violence and Sexual Assault, University of Texas at Austin.
Busch-Armendariz, N., Nsonwu, M., Cook Heffron, L., Garza, J., & Hernandez, M. Understanding human trafficking: Development of typologies of traffickers.
“The recruitment, transportation, transfer, harboring or receipt of persons, by means of the threat or use of force or other forms of coercion, of abduction, of fraud, of deception, of the abuse of power or of a position of vulnerability or of the giving or receiving of payments or benefits to achieve the consent of a person having control over another person, for the purpose of exploitation.” San Francisco is not immune to the problem, and has been considered a prime destination for human trafficking due to its ports, airports, industry, and rising immigrant populations.
Human trafficking is the second largest and fastest growing criminal industry in the world with as many as 27 million individuals living in slavery-like conditions throughout the world.health care centers, substance abuse recovery programs) or indirectly (e.g. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. organizational psychologists consulting to businesses that are at high risk for trafficking) with these victims; and WHEREAS practicing psychologists also may interact with populations identified as being at highest risk for human trafficking in the United States, such as children in the child welfare and juvenile justice systems, and many other hard to detect “hidden” vulnerable populations (Hepburn & Simon, 2010; Herman, 2003; Phillips, 2015; Pierce, 2012; Reid & Piquero, 2014; U. Department of State, 2014); and WHEREAS increasingly, since the passage of the Trafficking Victim's Protection Act (2000), the need to define non-violent forms of psychological coercion exists to support U. law enforcement's increasing number of human trafficking investigations and prosecutions (Burke & Zarembka, 2008; Kim, 2007, 2011; U. Department of Justice, 2015); and WHEREAS there is consensus in the United States that existing anti-trafficking laws have only partially protected victims of human trafficking (Polaris Project, 2015; Reiger, 2007; TVPA, 2000; TVPRA 2003, 2005, 2008, 2013); and WHEREAS in the United States anti-trafficking task forces need resources to increase their ability to work effectively across multiple disciplines (Office for Victims of Crime & Bureau of Justice Assistance, 2011); and WHEREAS health and social service providers need training and tools to identify and attend to victims effectively (OVC & BJA, 2011); and WHEREAS public awareness about human trafficking still needs to reach broader communities and communicate more information about the nuances of this crime (Farrell & Pfeffer, 2014; Greenbaum, 2015; Roe-Sepowitz, Hickle, Dahlstedt, & Gallgher, 2014; Cole & Sprang, 2015); and WHEREAS promising evidence exists that suggests that addressing sex buying in the United States may reduce rates of sex trafficking (Ali, 2009; Shively et al., 2012; Shively et al., 2010); and WHEREAS there are limited studies in the United States on the profile of traffickers and their unique pattern(s) of perpetration (APA, 2014; Human Rights Center, 2005; Kamazima, Kazaura, Ezekiel, & Fimbo, 2011) and existing studies suggest that traffickers have a broad profile (Denton, 2016; Human Rights Center, 2005; Kamazima et al., 2011; Roe-Sepowitz, Gallagher, Risinger & Hickle, 2015; UNODC, 2014), high levels of psychopathy (Hargreaves-Cormany, Patterson, & Muirhead, 2016), and sometimes use, in addition to physical violence and sexual assault other, non-violent, forms of manipulation and psychological coercion (Burke & Zarembka, 2008; Kim, 2011; Kim, 2007; Muftić & Finn, 2013; Sallman, 2010; U. Department of Justice, 2015); and WHEREAS human trafficking exposes victims to physical, sexual, and psychological abuse that incur in serious and complex health and psychological consequences (Cole, Sprang, Lee, & Cohen, 2016) WHEREAS in addition to a trafficker's threats of retaliatory violence (Farrel, 2014; Nichols & Heil, 2012), historical criminalization of persons involved in the sex industry (Busch-Armendariz, Nsonwu, Cook Heffron, Garza, & Hernandez, 2009; Cross, 2013; Gerassi, 2015; Lange, 2011; Minnesota Advocates for Human Rights, 2003; Roe-Sepowitz et al., 2014), as well as complex psychological symptoms that can result from trafficking, such as mistrust, may deter victim participation in prosecutions and in health and social services (U. Department of State, 2015; Gibbs, Walters, Lutnick, Miller, & Kluckman, 2015; Pierce, 2012; Raphael, Reichert, & Powers, 2010; Reid, 2013; UNODC, 2014; Zimmerman et al., 2003); and WHEREAS relationally-focused, trauma-sensitive, and culturally-attuned approaches delivered within a social ecological framework to treat the complex psychological consequences of human trafficking are needed (APA, 2014; Contreras, Kallivayalil, & Herman, 2016; Gibbs et al., 2015; Reid, 2016); and WHEREAS prevention programs addressing human trafficking and re-trafficking are needed for those in health care, in schools, and other community venues is required to educate the public (Cecchet & Thoburn, 2014; Reid, 2012; Reid, 2011; Silbert & Pines, 1981; Widum & Kuhns, 1996); and WHEREAS in the United States there is still a limited research base to understand the multiple factors related to human trafficking, and an urgent need exists to collect data on human trafficking to determine a global estimate of victims, and explore its causes and psychological consequences despite the enormous challenges involved in conducting such research (APA, 2009; APA, 2014; UNODC, 2014; Martin, 2013; Yonas, Burke, & Miller, 2013); WHEREAS one of the global recommendations on conducting human trafficking research is to support small and methodologically strong studies to identify the more nuanced characteristics of human trafficking (UNODC, 2014) BE IT THEREFORE RESOLVED that the American Psychological Association: Continues in its commitment to educate the public, promote awareness, and disseminate research findings to the general public, professionals working with at-risk populations, and professionals engaged in research about consumers, traffickers, and trafficked persons; BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED that APA encourages government and philanthropic organizations to fund research that would address gaps in knowledge related to human trafficking address the following gaps in knowledge related to human trafficking: BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED that APA encourages the involvement of psychologists to assist in the development of effective cross-disciplinary anti-trafficking task forces; and to contribute to other community, state, and federal efforts in anti-trafficking; BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED that APA strongly encourages that research initiatives and program development efforts include the participation of persons directly affected by human trafficking and community based organizations with experience serving trafficked persons; BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED that APA encourages existing legislation and policies include increased focus on protecting the human rights of trafficked persons and non-criminalization of such persons; BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED that APA strongly endorses the development and implementation of rigorously tested interventions that prevent and address the consequences of human trafficking; BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED that APA strongly endorses that psychology partner with legal professionals to redefine psychological coercion in cases of human trafficking; BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED that APA strongly encourages supporting research that can generate accurate estimates of human trafficking and evidence-based health services for survivors of human trafficking; and, Be IT FURTHER RESOLVED that APA supports and advocates for evidence-based policy and services for survivors of human trafficking. Sex Trafficking: Two women from Korea are brought into San Francisco under the pretense that they will receive jobs as hostesses or waitresses.When they arrive, they are held captive and forced into prostitution, while their captor controls the money they receive. From exploitation to industry: Definitions, risks, and consequences of domestic sexual exploitation and sex work among women and girls. Services to domestic minor victims of sex trafficking: Opportunities for engagement and support. The psychological experience of child and adolescent sex trafficking in the United States: Trauma and resilience in survivors. Psychotherapy in the aftermath of human trafficking: Working through the consequences of coercion. The United Nations, the United States government, the State of California, and the City of San Francisco are all committed to meeting the unique needs of human trafficking survivors, with the aim of ending this particularly heinous crime once and for all.Return to Top Forced Labor: A family gives up a child to an adoption agent in Nepal because they cannot afford to care for him.