More of Lakatos' activities in Hungary after World War II have recently become known.
After his release, Lakatos returned to academic life, doing mathematical research and translating George Pólya's How to Solve It into Hungarian.
It is structured as a series of Socratic dialogues between a teacher and a group of students.
A central theme is that definitions are not carved in stone, but often have to be patched up in the light of later insights, in particular failed proofs.
When he returned, he worked as a senior official in the Hungarian ministry of education.
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However, he found himself on the losing side of internal arguments within the Hungarian communist party and was imprisoned on charges of revisionism from 1950 to 1953.
Lakatos remained at the London School of Economics until his sudden death in 1974, aged just 51.
The work of Lakatos was heavily influenced by Popper and by Pólya.
He received a doctorate in philosophy in 1961 from the University of Cambridge.
The book, Proofs and Refutations, published after his death, is based on this work.