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Depending on the rewards and incentives employees receive and management’s motives for giving them, employees will respond to their work environment by being productive.Organisations must be seen to support employees in their daily work in order to bring about loyalty and improve retention by removing elements that may create dissatisfaction, while bearing in mind that in a heterogeneous environment, with male and female employees from different age groups, generations, and (to a certain extent) backgrounds, and with varying qualifications or experience, no single element will produce either universal approbation or collective disapproval.
According to David and Anderzej (2010), motivation can be understood as cognitive decision making in which the intension is to make the behavior that is aimed at achieving a certain goal through initiation and monitoring.
At work places, reviews are done using appraisals and appraisals at work have predetermined standards, and their outcome may provoke an emotional reaction in the employee, and this reaction will determine how satisfied or dissatisfied an employee is.
According to Smith & Cronje (1992), the way Maslow’s theory is explained relies on the fact that people want to increase what they want to achieve in life and their needs are prioritized according to their importance.
Deriving from the hierarchy of needs by Maslow, content theories of job satisfaction revolve around employees’ needs and the factors that bring them a reasonable degree of satisfaction (Saif et al., 2012).
The theories of motivation maybe categorized according to their definitions and purpose but critical analysis reveal that they are all linked, they lead to serving satisfaction in employees.
The use of both content and process theories must be put into practice to motivate employees effectively.
For us to help understand underpinnings to motivation, we must first explore what job satisfaction means because motivated employees will have a job satisfaction.
According to Kumar and Singh (2011, p.12), job satisfaction (or the lack thereof) depended on the employee’s perception of the degree to which his work delivers those things that he desires – how well outcomes are met or expectations perhaps even exceeded.
Based on the basic physical, biological, social and psychological needs of human beings, Maslow came up with a five-stage theory that places the needs of the individual in different categories and prioritizes their attainment.
These categories, in order of decreasing priority, are: • physiological needs (food, shelter, clothing); • safety and security needs (physical protection); • social needs (association with others); • esteem needs (receiving acknowledgement from others); and • self-actualisation needs (the desire for accomplishment or to leave behind a legacy).