Data from 18 research studies was systematically extracted and recorded.
Of the 18 articles that fit the inclusion/exclusion criteria, 14 articles used surveys or questionnaires to determine the rates of workplace violence and the effects.
Seventeen studies reported that violence perpetrated by a patient had notable negative effects on the healthcare professional.
The documented effects on healthcare professionals can be found in Table 2.
Survivors also found that they had reduced empathy and gave reduced emotional support to patients and their families after returning to work.
After an attack by a patient, survivors admitted to lacking concentration that led to missed medication administration, increased falls in their patients, and increased errors in the administration of care to their patients.In many healthcare and allied health professions, close contact with patients is essential for quality and thorough patient care.The job-related act of encouraging or compelling a patient to do something they may not want to do, in fields such as occupational and physical therapy, increases the risk for violence and the inability to protect oneself from violent patient attacks.Diagnosable post-traumatic stress disorder was found in survivors of workplace violence in four articles reviewed.The healthcare professionals also expressed general fearfulness in and out of the workplace after surviving an incident of workplace violence.Many survivors of workplace violence in healthcare settings also acknowledged avoiding talking or thinking about the incident with coworkers, family, and friends.They often cited anger as a consequence of the violence they experienced.Due to this increased risk of assault while working, healthcare workers are nearly four times as likely to need time off due to an injury caused by workplace violence than any other reason (i.e. In 2000, Rippon attempted to create a consensus definition of aggression, which he defined as "behavior with intent that is directed at doing harm to a living being whether harm results or not, or with willful blindness as to whether harm would result."The increased workplace violence in the healthcare sector compared to other occupations may be connected to patients' feelings of loss of control and the stress people experience in situations that require medical intervention. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has defined workplace violence as "violent acts (including physical assaults and threats of assaults) directed toward persons at work or on duty." The BJS defines workplace violence as "nonfatal violence (rape/sexual assault, robbery, and aggravated and simple assault) against employed persons age 16 or older that occurred while they were at work or on duty." Though OSHA and the BJS have defined workplace violence, a lack of definition consensus prevents direct comparison of research before 2000 on the topic of workplace violence in healthcare.In three articles, survivors of healthcare worker–directed violence reported knowingly spending less time with their patients after the attack.Survivors reported decreased communication with their patients, patients' families, and coworkers after an incident of workplace violence.