there is a space (and no period) after et in this abbreviation. stands for the Latin word ibidem, which means “in the same place.” It is used in endnotes or footnotes when you cite the same source and page number(s) two or more times. For example: Like sic, passim is not an abbreviation, but it is included here as a Latin term commonly used to save space in bibliographic entries.Tags: Essays Gender Discrimination WorkplaceEssay Writing ContestsCritical Lens Essay Into The WildEditing Your Own EssaySat Essay Prompts ListApa Dissertation Citation ProquestFast Food Nation Paper ResearchSolving Problems In Fluid MechanicsHomework For Second GradeProblem Solving With Percentages
In lists where you use etc., be sure all the listed items are of the same kind.
If you wrote the following sentence, your readers might have a hard time telling what “etc.” is substituting for because some of the items listed are objects, while others are people or activities: When etc. to show that the list of four planets is equivalent to the rocky planets-they refer to the same thing. may both be acceptable, but using one or the other will drastically change the meaning of the sentence.
In such cases, the name of the first author will be given in full and then followed by et al. stands for idem, which means “the same person.” It is used in place of ibid.
As with etc., there is no need to include ‘and’ before et al., but do notice that unlike etc. For example: Although it is becoming less common, you may encounter the abbreviation id. when the same author is cited but not the same page number. is only used to repeat the preceding citation exactly. stands for loco citato, which translates as “in the place cited,” whereas op. stands for opere citato which translates as “in the work cited.” Generally, loc. is used to refer to the same work and page number(s) as the previous citation, while op. refers only to the same work and may or may not be followed by page numbers.
Certain abbreviations may be used in parentheses within the body of a text (etc., e.g., i.e.), but the rest should appear only in footnotes, endnotes, tables, and other forms of documentation. While it’s perfectly acceptable to use English phrases instead of Latin abbreviations, there’s a reason why these abbreviations have survived and continue to be used today: they contain a lot of meaning in a very small package.
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One notable exception: APA style allows writers to use the abbreviation et al. It takes less time and fewer characters to write e.g.
Knowing what these abbreviations mean and how they are used is crucial to understanding and interpreting these works.
The average person could go through life never having to worry about most Latin abbreviations, but there are three that have become so widespread that they’re impossible to avoid: etc., i.e. These are also the most often misused Latin abbreviations.
For example: Many other examples could be included in a list of objects in our solar system (like asteroids and moons), but it would take too much space and time to list them all.
Also, listing them all wouldn’t add much to the sentence-readers don’t need to know the identity of every object orbiting the sun in order to understand the sentence.